Now that you have stopped working out, have a good understanding energy systems, and muscle types, it's time to train for your event.
While it is the case that your genetics predisposes you to a certain ratio of fast twitch to slow twitch, you can alter this ratio to maximize performance the performance of your muscles. The key is targeting the type IIa fibers.
There are two types of track and field athletes:
Yet, there are three types of muscle fibers:
In a previous post I explained how type IIa fibers bridge the gap between the aerobic type I fibers and the anaerobic type II fibers. Since this is the case, targeting type IIa fibers correctly and deliberately can enhance the function either the type I or IIb.
The chart above estimates the contribution of each muscle type to each event. With this as a guideline you can begin to prioritize your training.
Jumpers clearly derive all their speed and power from type II fibers. Similarly, 5k and 10k runners mostly use type I fibers. Therefore, they should spend a majority of their time training these muscles. The intersection of these modalities is the secret.
Individual muscles are a mixture of all three types of fibers as seen in the above picture. Genetics plays a huge factor in the distribution and proportion of one muscle types, but there are some commonalities. Your quads are about 52% type I while your calf is about 80% type I. In the book, Build a Better Athlete, research suggests that you can change this distribution with targeted and deliberate exercises.
It is the type IIb fibers that are both slow and fast twitch at the same time. Although it's not fully understood, through training you can shift the tendencies of type IIb. With more training in the aerobic zone, these muscle fibers will become efficient at using oxygen to produce energy. More explosive exercise will enhance type IIb muscles glycolitic pathways.
Knowing that you can shift muscle tendencies through training, it makes sense for you to study your event or sport to determine how what percent it is Type I or II. Using this percentage as a guideline, build your training plan so that the exercises mimic the percentage.
For example, a jumper should not select any exercises that target Type I (Oxidative) muscles. Jumpers should choose exercises that target Type IIb muscles a 90% of the time and Type IIa muscles 10% of the time. It makes no sense for a jumper to "go for a run."